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AS HUMANS, DESPITE OUR COLLECTIVE TALENTS and knowledge, we all encounter challenges in our lives. Although one challenge may be greater than another, it is the challenges that create action, create impetus to change, to adapt, or employ patience or some other skill that allows us overcome these challenges, and to evolve past them.

Challenges can be physical, such as in making the basketball squad in your school or college (a challenge that is not subject to diplomacy: you either are good enough or not). Then there are emotional challenges, such as involving the bereavement process (loss of a loved one) which may invoke spiritual, religious, and intellectual challenges, such as consideration of creeds of worship or religious rites. Moreover, challenges can be social, and perhaps a combination of any of these. No matter the type of challenge, they create stress.

So what do you do then?

Well, some people exercise – to increase endurance; some people do sudoku or perhaps take a class. Whatever the method utilized to combat stress, hopefully it works for you, but there is a pre-stress technique I would like you to be aware of which may allow you to affect a positive outcome in the face of certain social challenges. The technique, termed force-field analysis, comes to us from social-psychologist, Kurt Lewin. [1] Force-field analysis is used in business, collective-bargaining, and mediation. It can be employed by anyone who takes a few minutes to conduct such an analysis, and it is quite easy to remember. Force-Field Analysis, then, can be viewed like this:
In response to challenging stimuli, people will behave as resistant or encouraged to change – in relation to the adversity. There are 3 types of forces in any “field of controversy”. The first set of forces is called restraining forces – which aid ones resistance to change. Then, there are driving forces – which encourage change. Finally, there is the “inertia force” in the field, where both restraining and driving forces collide. The term force-field analysis is named for the insight used to devise strategies based on what is learned from competing forces in the field.

Let me clarify with an example:

You have been tasked with a project at work, this Friday afternoon, and due to the nature of your employment, are forced to work overtime. The project will likely add another 6-hours to your shift therefore you will certainly miss your son’s coveted playoff basketball match – one you promised to make. However, you realize that you could complete the extra work in around two-hours and still be able to keep your promise to your son if you could convince another colleague to also work overtime – which for any one of them – is not mandatory. After your initial inquiries nobody is convinced to stay late. There is one lead who seemed promising, but she had voiced concerns about additional pay for the babysitter, and was not sure she could afford to cover an extra 3-hours considering she has already exceeded her monthly budget expenditures.

A Force-Field Analysis for this scenario would look like this:


In this situation, without the analysis, it looks as if you will miss your son’s senior basketball game and you will have broken a promise to him. However, a close analysis provides hope. If you are able to introduce an additional driving force (money) it might act upon your colleagues resistance. Offers to cover the babysitter out-of-pocket, and/or perhaps order a take-out meal to reinvigorate your colleague’s energy stores, or you might offer to baby sit for free a few nights, so your colleague could get a night on the town at some point in the future? Whatever course you choose, the answer lies in the creativity you attach to your analysis of the forces at play. This technique not only works well in business and in mediation-type arenas, you might discover that it can be used to see many kinds of challenges from a clearer perspective, thus, overcome resistance to behaviors you wish to modify.

I hope this was helpful. May the force be with you. 😉



1. Lewin, K. (1951) Field Theory in Social Science, New York: Harper and Row
2. Simple guides to carry out force field analysis, with examples in management, see:

The Secrets to Managerial Success: Unlocking Functions


SUCCESS IN MANAGEMENT STEMS LARGELY FROM skill sets as opposed to externalities such as height, good-looks, or racial group as it may have pre-21st Century. Neither does success depend on charisma alone. The primary determinant of managerial success results from how well the manager knows then executes her Four Major Functions as manager.

These four major functions of management are Planning, Organizing, Controlling, and Directing. While these functions share similarities, they are distinct and developed to produce different outcomes. However, this is accomplished with the success of the enterprise as the end-goal.

Let’s examine individual functions, starting with Planning.

Planning includes major activities that encompass decisions involving company goals and direction, and figuring out ways to implement these directives within constraints of finite resources. Besides ones education, the industry in which one learned to manage provides some initial direction. For instance, ideas used in the hospitality industry may not translate to success-filled plans in agribusiness if one changed jobs.

Primary plans need to be available for everyone to see. These plans are policies, procedures, and most mission statements. One must communicate these plans to the work force.

The ever-important planning function must expound a direction and its goal(s); planning must also elaborate the means to accomplish the jobs; the resources to be used, and training to accomplish these tasks. Additionally, there must also exist a means through which to evaluate alternative courses of action, and determine if ones goals and procedures have aligned, or tragically, why they have not. If ones goals are not being met, troubleshoot the plans, ask for feedback, and never be fearful of going back to the drawing board. After all, short cuts such as installing faulty products (instead of finding another distributor to provide a better part) have led to deaths and billions of dollars in liability, resulting in mass recall of products because the end goal of profit was thought to be more important short-term than long-term, ethical and strategic plans and procedures upon which any company is founded.

Organizing, as alluded to in the first function, is likely the most similar and parcel to the planning function. It’s in the organization of the business that ones goals will be implemented and tasks carried out. This entails deciding which employees do specific jobs and “establishing a framework of authority and accountability among the people… ” assigned to complete the jobs (Greer & Plunkett, 2007:100).

Whether a business is bureaucratic (infexible and reactive) or organic (flexible and creative), this design will have an effect on the entirety of philosophy, hierarchy, and effort of the employee. This must be kept in mind as part of some radical strategy may even perhaps involve revamping the design of the organization itself so as to better compete in a dynamic market (e.g. outsourcing, virtual conferences, etc.)

Planning and Organizing

Planning and Organizing

Direction and Control

Direction and Control


Directing is thought of in much the same way as one thinks if a music conductor. The music conductor coordinates the structure of a symphony by employing variously specialized musicians to work together, each contributing to a highly intricate goal at the behest of the conductor. Successful directors and managers do the recruiting and staffing based on needs, tasks and corporate goals, and coordinate training staff to function in their particular symphony of commerce. Once staffed and trained, these roles also require support through incentives, discipline, evaluation, and motivation.
This important function, a human resources function, demands a group of skills that the manager must enrich through practice. One must learn to draw upon these skills at-will to influence others and to exercise leadership.

Finally, there is the Control function. This function invokes history; that is, comparing industry standards for performance to ones own. Standards must be accepted practices, produce quantifiable or measurable results, must be economically sensible, and focus on key points of the service or production to have maximal effect.

To illustrate this control concept, there is a popular story about a manager who held a meeting before shift began at an assembly plant. She talks about efficiency and savings then concludes the meeting with, “Does anyone have input or suggestions?” The workers are standing around trying to come up with something when a new employee yells (in a strong southern accent) from the back of the crowd, “We always have to leave the production floor to fetch gloves and that takes like 30-min. We have to walk to storage, fill out some long form. On top all that, we have locate two-managers to sign-off on it just to get a pair of gloves to do our jobs. That seems to be completely senseless, if you ask me.”
The manager smiles, then she replies, “From now on gloves will be moved to the production floor, require no forms, and no signatures.”

Needless to say its easy to see production increased throughout the entire organization based on initiative to ask a question and take really simple action.

While not every problem can be solved as easily as shown in the glove anecdote, it does illustrate successful use of all four functions of management. With practice and experience employing functions of management, one ties the success of business to oneself. Skilled, confident employment of these functions starts with these “secrets”:
1) knowing the business
2) knowing the staff
3) knowing corporate goals
4) possess the willingness to elevate the firm through critical thinking and decisive action.
Those are the secrets.



• Charles Greer, and R. Plunkett.
PEARSON. (2007).

• images, courtesy of



Cultivation of ones managerial skills involves intense experience and education; however, practicing a trio of principles throughout ones education and career, may insure persistent quality of work and appreciation for ones position by oneself and others. (A very profitable move, I must add.)

• What is meant by managerial tic?

TIC is an acronym: Technological, Interpersonal, and Conceptual, which refers to the three kinds of leadership skills that managers need to cultivate. TIC Skills influence everyones job in throughout the firm, produce trends in business through leadership, and TIC Managers can anticipate changes within an organization/business environment. TIC Skills also affect productivity.


• Technological Skills:

Technological skills is the know-how required to complete the functions within a job. For instance, a secretary possesses a variety of skills different from those of a landscaper. A secretary must typically master a number of software programs such as ©MICROSOFT OFFICE, ©CORELL, OR ©ADOBE, in order to operate at optimal production, whereas a landscaper utilizes hand-tools, machinery, and later, perhaps many of the “secretarial” software programs that have become commonplace in day-to-day life, such as Office®.

Effective managers master the many tools required to perform their jobs. This also improves explanation when training/developing employees; one becomes a greater teacher.

Many skills can be developed at tech schools or colleges for use on the job. Once you have these… teach them, even explaining them to yourself out loud will make you more aware of your work. Your work will become better.



• Interpersonal Skills:

Just as with tech-skills, serious approaches to crafting interpersonal skill will work in your favor, not just on the job, but throughout life. Interpersonal skills aid our communication with others, and involve techniques on how to communicate most effectively.
Much of our at-work communication is formal, so politeness and chain-of-command will determine the extent of such activities. However, body language, written, and spoken communication skills are not the only means by which we communicate with peers and employers; recognition of unspoken communication and diversity of people are also important concepts.

There are cultural norms and customs that one also needs to be aware of in order to become an effective communicator. In Japan, a bow instead of hand shaking is typical and polite. In America, we make direct eye-contact, where there, it is disrespectful to do so. Thus, cultural knowledge must be taken into consideration when attempting to communicate with, or train employees.

Finally, ones mastery of technical training will be put to great use once that knowledge needs to be passed on to employees. After developing both of these skills, you gain confidence through training others to reach optimal performance!

• Conceptual Skills:

Michael Jeffrey Jordan–the greatest basketball player to ever play in the National Basketball Association, not only had the god-given talent to play, and the technical/fundamental acumen of the game of basketball, MJ also possessed the interpersonal skills of leadership. His TIC helped him to win 6-Championships throughout a 16-year career!
Mike’s successes were no an accident; Air Jordan, had to first conceptualize the entirety of the game in order to become the greatest. His tasks encompassed learning rules, boundaries, any grey areas, and his opponent’s abilities, too: otherwise there’s no gamesmanship, nor any reason to grow. Thus, develop interpersonal skills. Knowing hoew your industry communicates is how one begins to champion ones job.



In management, there are employees to be trained, led, and superiors to communicate with, each with an amalgam of differences. The point is, one has to have the rules of the game–the bigger picture–in mind when managing anything; knowledge of each job, the time it takes for each step in production, the purpose of each tool, the uses of the floor plan, etc. These are compartments of your jobs concept. Get to know these processes. Do you think Jordan knew who had the ball at any given time, whom to pass it to in a pinch? How many time-outs were available, or fouls to give? Of course, he did.

Don’t lose the forest for the trees, yes, but the big picture will assist in maintaining focus and direct you to the answers of tough questions that leaders are often faced with.

The RippleFX Foundation encourages each of you to develop your own personal TIC. In this path, any charismatic ability to leading others is honed by your TIC. We all have it. Master the tech, master the interpersonal, and the conceptual, and soon enough, you will discover you’re right where you want to be: at the top.



• Greer, Charles R., and Richard W. Plunkett. Supervisory Management, 11th Ed. Prentice Hall. N.Y. (2007)

• photos of Jordan, courtesy of

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